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Old 07-26-2016, 04:38 AM   #1
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4WD Yaris / Vitz questions

Okay, I didn't know it, but apparantly there are 4WD versions made of the first and second generation Yaris. They are called Vitz in Japan, and possibly the 4WD versions were only sold in Japan or parts of Asia.
So I don't want to talk about what somebody made in his shed, but what Toyota has produced.

But what I can see now is that there are at least two 4WD versions of the Yaris/Vitz. Both same to be the 1.3 engine instead of the 1.5

1st gen: 1.3 2NZ with manual transmisison:
http://www.toyodiy.com/parts/g_J_199...5-AHMNK_2.html

2nd gen: 1.3 2NZ with automatic
http://www.toyodiy.com/parts/g_J_200...5-AHPGK_2.html

I like the idea of a 4WD yaris as it allows you to put down some power. Of course, that's not a big deal with a 1.3 petrol engine. But you can fit the 1.5 1NZ with a supercharger or turbo kit.
You could even weld the transfer case, and make it into a rear wheel driver Yaris quite easily :) (just for the fun of throwing a rwd around the corner, although 4wd is safer and provides more grip in the end)

My questions:

1. How does the 4wd work? I would assume it is an open centre diff, as with any awd road car (so not like 4x4's). But I see in the parts system a transfer case that seems to have 1 set of pinion and rack. So the axle going through the transfer case always seems to power the rear axle (via prop shaft)?
Which would be strange, you need an open diff for road driving.

2. In relation to question 1, perhaps is there a way to engage 4wd if it is not an open diff? Perhaps there could be a difference between manual and automatic here.

3. I also don't completely understand where the transfer case is located. I would assume it is between gearbox and front diff, but does that mean that the location of front diff is different from normal fwd version? And so longer/shorter axle shafts?

4. I guess that the body is a bit different to make room for the propshaft and rear diff?
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Old 07-26-2016, 04:57 AM   #2
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Ok in this youtube vid I see a button that allows you to lock the centre transfer case, nice! It seems to be a Japanese 3rd gen Yaris/Vitz, also 1.3 automatic. All Russian, so no idea what he is saying.
https://youtu.be/EABPx7HpAbc?t=4m33s

But that would probably mean you typically drive in front-wheel drive and you can engage the rear axle if you like (which is not suitable for dry tarmac driving, just like with old-fashioned 4x4)
However, it would probably be pretty easy to have it permanently fixed an create a rear wheel drive version. :P

Edit: I see from the parts database that it is infact the same transfer case (same part number for the housing) as the 2nd gen Vitz 4wd, both with automatic (but different engine)
So perhaps they all have a button to engage 4wd / rear axle?
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Old 07-26-2016, 07:26 AM   #3
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Here's a good discussion on the All-trac forums. Not sure how much of it applies to the Yaris, but getting a copy of the BGB for that model would be very helpful.

http://www.alltrac.net/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=45503
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Old 07-26-2016, 09:11 AM   #4
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I know the GT4's, and they are a perfectly good example of fulltime 4wd road cars because of an center diff. The discussion over there is if the center diff is really open, or if it has some kind of LSD function etc.

The button on a Yaris 4wd (at least for 2nd gen and 3rd gen automatic 4wd versions) clearly suggests a transfer case in which you simply engage the second axle, in this case likely the rear axle. If you don't press that button, your still in 2wd mode, likely just fwd.
This is known as part-time 4wd, which you typically see on (old fashioned) 4x4 like Landcruiser Hilux etc.
In fact, I have this system on my 4x4 Hi-ace camper van.

part-time 4wd is great for off-road driving, but on dry tarmac it needs to be in 2wd mode. Fulltime 4wd is great for on road driving, especially with power. Like the GT4 is a good example.

I think the Yaris / Vitz 4wd follows the path of older Toyota 4wd small cars. Like Corolla 4wd and the Tercel 4wd. But then no low-gearing, which is not even so bad if it has an automatic. They all had standard fwd and an axle that could be used when switches a button (engaging 4wd). It doesn't seem to be like GT4 or RAV4 with fulltime 4wd.

If it is like that, (part-time 4wd) it is not ideal for handling power, since it will be a standard fwd car and you can't use the rear axle on normal roads, because it will wear and break. And drive shitty around the corner.

It would be interesting to detach the fwd shafts, and always have it in "4wd" mode, effectively creating a rear wheel drive Yaris :-D (but it will be hard to find an LSD for the rear axle)

Edit: I mean this button as shown in the youtube video:



This means that you typically have 2wd untill you push that button. It could be full-time 4wd at the same time, but the transfer case I see in the pictures is to simple for that. And earlier Corolla and Tercel wagons didn't have it as well. (basically all of them share the Toyota C transmission like the Yaris / Vitz)
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Old 07-26-2016, 09:33 AM   #5
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This is a diagram of the transfer case, which is pretty much the same for all three generations of the Vitz 4wd. So this is just fixed, it is no open differential. But I don't see where it is engaged (for example, by vacuum power) after pushing a button.

http://jp-carparts.com/toyota/partli...pe=27&fig=3610

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Old 07-26-2016, 05:20 PM   #6
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4 x 4 and AWD(All Wheel Drive) is NOT the same.
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Old 07-26-2016, 05:43 PM   #7
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back in the early 1990's i had an All Wheel Drive Corolla whichwas the replacement for the Tercel.

The manual was full time All Wheel Drive with a button operated diff lock for the center diff. The auto was front wheel drive with the button switching in the center diff to provide All Wheel Drive when wanted.

Not sure if the Yaris is the same...
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Old 07-26-2016, 06:35 PM   #8
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@Rigaud, I know that! Thats the whole point, what do these versions do.

@kevinj93, yeah it seems to be the same like that automatic Corolla 4wd. So it is in fact a parttime 4x4 like an old landcruiser. Only the default drive is front wheels.

Im not sure how the engaging works, i would assume something with vacuum.

I guess they are not so interesting from racing point of view unless you make it into rear wheel drive.
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Old 07-26-2016, 08:18 PM   #9
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The Vitz AWD is kind of a an interesting setup. The transfer case is driven off the front diff of the automatic transmission. It is a full time AWD system, so there is no mechanism for engaging or disengaging the AWD.





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Old 07-26-2016, 09:28 PM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by CTScott View Post
It is a full time AWD system, so there is no mechanism for engaging or disengaging the AWD.
Oh good, I'm not losing my mind. I know what the cross-section line drawings of the all-trac engagement transfer case looks like, so I was going crazy not finding the mechanism on this one. That's a VERY small rear diff housing, as well.
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Old 07-26-2016, 10:46 PM   #11
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Quote:
Originally Posted by CTScott View Post

Some time ago there was a post wondering what the second set of holes in the torsion-beam brackets were for. This pic shows for sure that the AWD uses them. Cool.

I'm surprised that Toyota didn't house the AWD clutch in the rear diff. It allows for a much smaller T-case. I'll bet that's an off-the-shelf diff that fits other vehicles so it was cheaper to build the clutch into the T-case. May make it easier to source if someone wanted to convert.

Cheers.
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Old 07-27-2016, 09:36 AM   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by CTScott View Post
The Vitz AWD is kind of a an interesting setup. The transfer case is driven off the front diff of the automatic transmission. It is a full time AWD system, so there is no mechanism for engaging or disengaging the AWD.

First of all, thanks for the pics of the bottom
From which gen Yaris is this, first gen?

So it seems as if it derives power from the axle of the front right wheel? Since the transfer case is located on the outside of the front diff, on one side.

Did you see the diagram picture I posted? There seems to be no clutch or something, so a fixed transfer. Unlike a GT4 or RAV4, which actually have a centre diff. In this case it is just pinion gear and thats it.

So this means that a difference between front and rear axle (for example during cornering) is allowed because of the front diff. But I find it hard to believe that the left front wheel would make the same amount of rotations as the average of both rear wheels. So I think I don't understand it yet

And that it would not be engable 4wd: I'm not sure. The youtube vid clearly shows a button in which the middle can be locked. Probably not even locked since it won't be a difflock, but just engaged, like a parttime 4x4.
See here: https://youtu.be/EABPx7HpAbc?t=4m33s
That is a 3rd gen Vitz, but the transfer case is the same.

Last edited by Swing; 07-27-2016 at 09:51 AM.
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Old 07-27-2016, 10:06 AM   #13
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To be more clear on the transfer case:

This is a RAV4 centre diff (in transfer case), an actual diff as you would expect on an AWD car:



This is the Yaris transfer case without a real diff:



So at least it is not a typical fulltime awd machine, as the difference in speed between front and rear axle would be limited (unlike with the RAV4 which has a centre diff for that)
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Old 07-27-2016, 01:17 PM   #14
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Originally Posted by Swing View Post
@Rigaud, I know that! Thats the whole point, what do these versions do.
Similar to a Suburban I had which which I had the choice to lock it in 4x4 Low/High or select AWD. In AWD only the back wheels where full time engaged until it detected a loss of traction. My Subaru is full time AWD. I'd be curious to know what system the WRC Yaris is running, it's AWD with 350H.P. so........!!!!!
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Old 07-28-2016, 06:56 PM   #15
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AWD huh......awesome.

Could we possibly just swap in the AWD system from the rav4?

Are there any manual transmission AWD options?
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Old 07-28-2016, 08:29 PM   #16
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AWD huh......awesome.

Could we possibly just swap in the AWD system from the rav4?

Are there any manual transmission AWD options?
The AWD Vitz actually has a different floor pan than ours. The tunnel is much wider to allow the exhaust and drive shaft to coexist.
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Old 07-28-2016, 09:52 PM   #17
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Looks like the diff mount brackets are welded in too. If you really want a AWD Yaris, you'd probably do best to get a Vitz and rebadge it ;) . Either that or do some serious fab work.

Cheers.
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Old 07-29-2016, 01:47 AM   #18
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Yeah it would be best to import a Vitz from Japan with 4wd.

But then I would like to understand how it works. And we don't seem to completely understand it yet.
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