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Old 07-09-2012, 09:21 AM   #1
Hussain-Vtec
 
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Drives: ECHO NCP-12/2NZ-FE
Join Date: Jun 2012
Location: Bahrain
Posts: 25
***The Engine Oil Bible***

Hello all,

Tooter Requested This So Here you Go.



download.jpg
Things We Need To No About Oil.

For @ start i do have a Personal Theory Below.

What is a good oil temperature, before Wide Open Throttle? I have heard BMW recommends something around 130F before anything over 3000 RPM.

This is my thinking for full RPM at WOT:

20 wt. oil - 160 F
30 wt. oil - 180 F
40 wt. oil - 200 F
50 wt. oil - 220 F

Note that you cannot use your water temperature gauge to tell where your oil temperature may be. Water heats up in 2 - 3 minutes whereas oil takes as long a 30 minutes to get to 180 F.

"Best thing to do is change the oil, fill the petrol tank, put a battery maintainer on, and don't start the car until you're ready to drive it in the Spring."
'Not a bad idea but during winter I would start the engine every 3 weeks. Then run it with the head lights and A/C on to increase the load on the engine. Run for 15 minutes at a fast idle then shut it down.

I like to trickle change all my batteries every month, all year. This minimizes sulfating, increases life and decreases engine load after starting the car up by having the battery topped up every so often.


Now the time for the Oil explaining.

Here is an ENGINE OIL GUIDE Pdf.
http://www.apicj-4.org/2009_ENGINE_OIL_GUIDE.pdf


Castrol Supra.jpg

How much do you value the engine in your car?
The life of your engine depends in no small part on the quality of the oil you put in it - oil is its lifeblood. People typically don't pay much attention to their oil - oil is oil, right? In the bad old days, maybe, but engine oil underwent something of a revolution in the 80's and 90's when hot hatches, 16-valve engines and turbos started to become popular. Combined with the devastating problems of black death the days of one oil catering for everyone were over.
Take Castrol for example. They led the field for years with their GTX mineral oil. This was eventually surpassed by semi-synthetic and fully synthetic oils, including GTX2 and GTX3 Lightec. Those were surpassed by Formula SLX and most recently, Castrol GTX Magnatec. All manufacturers have a similar broad spectrum of oils now - I just mention Castrol in particular as they're my oil of choice for my own cars.

What does my oil actually do?
Your engine oil performs many functions. It stops all the metal surfaces in your engine from grinding together and tearing themselves apart from friction, and it transfers heat away from the combustion cycle. Engine oil must also be able to hold in suspension all the nasty by-products of combustion like silica (silicon oxide) and acids. Finally, engine oil minimises the exposure to oxygen and thus oxidation at higher temperatures. It does all of these things under tremendous heat and pressure.

If your Mustang heads are in need of repair, check out AmericanMuscle.com
http://www.americanmuscle.com/mustan...ain-parts.html


How do I read the numbers around the 'W'? For example 5W40?
As oils heat up, they generally get thinner. Single grade oils get too thin when hot for most modern engines which is where multigrade oil comes in. The idea is simple - use science and physics to prevent the base oil from getting too thin when it gets hot. The number before the 'W' is the 'cold' viscosity rating of the oil, and the number after the 'W' is the 'hot' viscosity rating. So a 5W40 oil is one that behaves like a 5-rated single grade oil when cold, but doesn't thin any more than a 40-rated single grade oil when hot. The lower the 'winter' number (hence the 'W'), the easier the engine will turn over when starting in cold climates. There's more detail on this later in the page under both viscosity, and SAE ratings.

What the heck was Black Death?
Black Death first appeared in the early 80's when a sticky black substance was found to be the cause of many engine seizures in Europe. It was extremely frustrating for vehicle owners because dealers and mechanics had no idea what was going on. Black Death just wasn't covered under insurance - if your engine had it, you paid to fix it yourself. Many engines were affected but Ford and Vauxhall (GM) suffered the most. Faster roads, higher under-hood temperatures, tighter engineering tolerances and overworked engine oils turned out to be contributors to the problem. The oils just couldn't handle it and changed their chemical makeup under pressure into a sort of tar-like glue. This blocked all the oil channels in the engines, starved them of lubrication and caused them to seize. I don't recommend this but you can reproduce the effect with a frying pan, cooking oil and a blowtorch. The cooking oil will heat up far quicker than it's designed to and will turn to a sticky black tar in your pan. Either that or it will set fire to your kitchen, which is why I said "don't do this".
Anyway, burning kitchens aside, Black Death was the catalyst for the production of newer higher quality oils, many of them man-made rather than mineral-based.

Black death for the 21st century

There's a snappy new moniker for Black Death now: sludge. The cause is the same as Black Death and it seems to be regardless of maintenance or mileage. The chemical compounds in engine oils break down over time due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures and poor maintenance habits. When the oil oxidises, the additives separate from it and begin to chemically break down and solidify, leading to the baked-on oil deposits turning gelatinous, like black yoghurt. What doesn't help is that due to packaging, modern engines have smaller sumps than their older counterparts, and so hold less oil. This lower volume of oil can't hold as much crap (for want of a better word) and that can lead to earlier chemical breakdown.
The most common factor in sludge buildup is a combination of mineral oils, a lack of maintenance by the car owner and harsh driving conditions. However, a 2005 Consumer Reports article discovered that some engines from Audi, Chrysler, Saab, Toyota, and Volkswagen appear prone to sludge almost no matter how often the oil is changed.

What does sludge look like?

I was contacted by a BMW driver who had been having a particularly harsh time with sludge and was discussing it on the Bimmerfest forums. He posted some images of his problem and other readers posted similarly-framed images of the same engine components in "normal" condition. Here are two of those photos. On the left is what the cam case should look like in a well maintained engine when photographed through the oil filler cap. On the right is what the same type of engine looks like when suffering sludge buildup.

Link
http://www.bimmerfest.com/forums/showthread.php?t=94785


In this example, the consensus was that the sludge buildup was caused by an overheating engine, oil that hadn't been changed for 20,000 miles of stop-go city driving, a lot of cold starts and a period of about 12 months in storage without an oil change.

Curing sludge
There are no hard and fast rules for curing an engine of sludge buildup. If it's really bad, flushing the engine might be the only cure, but that could also cause even more problems. If flushing the engine results in bits of sludge getting lodged where they can do more damage, you're actually worse off.
It's interesting to note that some race techs have reported sludge buildup in race engines as a result of aftermarket additives being used in conjunction with the regular oil. The chemical composition of the additives isn't as neutral as some companies would lead us to believe, and combined with particular types of oil and high-stress driving, they can cause oil breakdown and sludge to appear. The lesson from them appears to be "don't use additives".

When is sludge not sludge?


Easy; when it's an oil and water emulsion from a leaking or blown head gasket. If this happens, you get a whitish cream coloured sludge on the inside of the oil filler cap that looks like vanilla yoghurt or mayonnaise. The cap is typically cooler than the rest of the cam case and so the oil/water mix tends to condense there. If the underside of your filler cap has this sort of deposit on it, chances are the engine has a blown head gasket. A surefire way to confirm this is if your oil level is going up and your coolant level is going down. The coolant gets through the breaks in the head gasket and mixes with the oil. When it gets to the sump it separates out and the oil floats on top. A more accurate way to check for this condition is to use a combustion leak tester, or block tester. If you're in America, NAPA sell them for about $45 (part #BK 7001006). If you're in England, Sealey sell them for about 70 (model number VS0061). Combustion leak testers are basically a turkey baster filled with PH liquid, with a non-return valve at the bottom. To use one, run your engine for a few minutes until its warm (not hot) then turn it off. Use a protective glove (like an oven glove) and take the radiator or reservoir cap off. Plug the bottom of the combustion leak tester into the hole and squeeze the rubber bulb on top. It will suck air from the top of the coolant through the non-return valve and bubble it through the PH liquid. If the liquid changes colour (normally blue to yellow), it means there is combustion gas in the coolant which means a head gasket leak.

Note:
There is one other possible cause for the mayonnaise: a blocked scavenger hose. Most engines have a hose that comes off the cam cover and returns to the engine block somewhere via a vacuum line. This is the scavenger hose that scavenges oil vapour and gasses that build up in the cam cover. If it's blocked you can end up with a buildup of condensation inside the cam cover, which can manifest itself as the yellow goop inside the filler cap.

VW / Audi sludge problems
While the the 1.8T engines in Audi A4's, Audi TT, VW Passat, Jetta, Golf, New Bettle, are all very prone to sludge build-up, Audi/VW does not have an extended warranty for them from the factory. The factory warranty is 4 year/50,000 miles but it can be extended if purchased.
Although Audi/VW now has 10,000 mile service intervals, oil changes can be done between "services", and should be done if the vehicle is driven in heavy traffic, offroad, and non-highway use. Also, Audi/ VW will only warrant an engine if the customer has proof of all their oil changes. As of 2004 I belive all 1.8T engines must use synthetic oil.
So if you own one of these sludge-prone engines, what can you do? Obviously, Volkswagen Audi Group (VAG) states that you use only VW/Audi recommended oil. You should also keep up on your oil changes, making them more frequent if you drive hard or haul a lot of cargo. The most important thing for the VW or Audi owner is this: if the oil light comes on and beeps the high pitch beep that almost everyone ignores, pull over and shut the engine down immediately. Many VAG engines can be saved by this procedure. Have the vehicled towed to a VAG dealer. Their standard procedure is to inspect the cam bearings; if they're not scored, the oil pan will be removed and cleaned out and all the crankcase breather hoses and the oil pickup tube will be replaced. They'll do an oil pressure test with a mechanical gauge, and hopefully will also replace the turbo lines. Finally, the turbo will be checked for bearing free-play. The VAG turbos run really hot even with proper oil and coolant supply - that's why you need a good quality synthetic in them.

Toyota sludge problems
For their part, Toyota have the dubious honour of having the most complaints about sludge buildup in their engines - over 5,000 in 2008 alone. At the time of writing there is a class action suit going on against them. Details can be found at www.oilgelsettlement.com

Saab sludge problems
For an example of sludge in a Saab 9 5 Aero with only 42,000 miles on it, you might be interested to read my case study on this engine, put together with the help of a reader. Our sludge case study.

Link'
http://www.carbibles.com/sludge_casestudy.html

Mineral or synthetic motor oil?
Mineral oils are based on oil that comes from dear old Mother Earth which has been refined.
Synthetic oils are mostly concocted by chemists wearing white lab coats in oil company laboratories. The only other type is semi-synthetic, sometimes called premium, which is a blend of the two. It is safe to mix the different types, but it's wiser to switch completely to a new type rather than mixing.

Synthetics
Despite their name, most synthetic derived motor oils (ie Mobil 1, Castrol Formula RS etc) are actually derived from mineral oils - they are mostly Polyalphaolifins and these come from the purest part of the mineral oil refraction process, the gas. PAO oils will mix with normal mineral oils which means you can add synthetic to mineral, or mineral to synthetic without your engine seizing up (although I've heard Mobil 1 is actually made by reformulating ethanol).
These bases are pretty stable, and by stable I mean 'less likely to react adversely with other compounds' because they tend not to contain reactive carbon atoms. Reactive carbon has a tendency to combine with oxygen creating an acid. (As you can imagine, in an oil this would be A Bad Thing.) They also have high viscosity indices and high temperature oxidative stability. Typically a small amount of diester synthetic (a compound containing two ester groups) is added to counteract seal swell too. These diesters act as a detergent and will attack carbon residuals. So think of synthetic oils as custom-built oils. They're designed to do the job efficiently but without any of the excess baggage that can accompany mineral based oils.

Pure synthetics
Pure synthetic oils (polyalkyleneglycol) are the types used almost exclusively within the industrial sector in polyglycol oils for heavily loaded gearboxes. These are typically concocted by even more intelligent blokes in even whiter lab coats. These chaps break apart the molecules that make up a variety of substances, like vegetable and animal oils, and then recombine the individual atoms that make up those molecules to build new, synthetic molecules. This process allows the chemists to actually "fine tune" the molecules as they build them. Clever stuff. But Polyglycols don't mix with normal mineral oils.


While we're on synthetic oils, I should mention Amsoil. They contacted me and asked to point out the following:
Amsoil do NOT produce or market oil additives and do not wish to be associated with oil additives. They are a formulator of synthetic lubricants for automotive and industrial applications and have been in business for 30+ years. They are not a half-hour infomercial or fly-by-night product, nor have they ever been involved in a legal suit regarding their product claims in that 30+ year span. Many Amsoil products are API certified, and ALL of our products meet and in most cases exceed the specifications of ILSAC, AGMA etc. Their lubricants also exceed manufacturers specifications and Amsoil are on many manufacturers approval lists. They base their claims on ASTM certified tests and are very open to anyone, with nothing to hide.

Amsoil recommend engine oil additives are NOT to be used with their products. They have a pretty good FAQ on the Amsoil website: Amsoil FAQ (external link). There is also a particularly good page talking about testing Amsoil in taxis.

Link's
http://www.amsoil.com/frequent.aspx
http://www.searchforparts.com/import..._taxi_cabs.php


If I put new, fully synthetic oil in my older engine, will the seals leak?
This question comes up a lot from people who've just bought a used vehicle and are wanting to start their history with the car on fresh oil.
The short answer: generally speaking, not any more. The caveat is that your engine must be in good working order and not be leaking right now. If that's the case, most modern oils are fully compatible with the elastomeric materials that engine seals are made from, and you shouldn't have any issues with leaks.

The longer answer:
Mixing Mineral and Synthetic oils - current thinking

Here's the current thinking on the subject of mixing mineral and synthetic oils. This information is based on the answer to a technical question posed on the Shell Oil website:
There is no scientific data to support the idea that mixing mineral and synthetic oils will damage your engine. When switching from a mineral oil to a synthetic, or vice versa, you will potentially leave a small amount of residual oil in the engine. That's perfectly okay because synthetic oil and mineral-based motor oil are, for the most part, compatible with each other. (The exception is pure synthetics. Polyglycols don't mix with normal mineral oils.)
There is also no problem with switching back and forth between synthetic and mineral based oils. In fact, people who are "in the know" and who operate engines in areas where temperature fluctuations can be especially extreme, switch from mineral oil to synthetic oil for the colder months. They then switch back to mineral oil during the warmer months.
There was a time, years ago, when switching between synthetic oils and mineral oils was not recommended if you had used one product or the other for a long period of time. People experienced problems with seals leaking and high oil consumption but changes in additive chemistry and seal material have taken care of those issues. And that's an important caveat. New seal technology is great, but if you're still driving around in a car from the 80's with its original seals, then this argument becomes a bit of a moot point - your seals are still going to be subject to the old leakage problems no matter what newfangled additives the oil companies are putting in their products.

Flushing oils
These are special compound oils that are very, very thin. They almost have the consistency of tap water both when cold and hot. Typically they are 0W/20 oils. Their purpose is for cleaning out all the gunk which builds up inside an engine.

Note:
Some hybrid vehicles now require 0W20, so if you're a hybrid driver, check your owner's manual. Also I believe Honda switched to recommending 0W20 in 2011 to meet their CAFE ratings (thinner oil gives less drag on engine parts which improves - fractionally - the mpg). If you look at 2010 models vs 2011, you'll see things like the Element and CR-V getting a tiny mpg boost in the official figures despite being the exact same car. They achieved this by remapping the gearbox shift points and dropping the cold viscosity rating on the oil. In reality unless you live in northern Alaska, or do an above average number of cold-start short journeys, 5W20 ought to be more than suitable.

Do I need a flushing oil?
Unless there's something seriously wrong with your engine, like you've filled it with milk or shampoo, you really ought never to need a flushing oil. If you do decide to do an oil flush, there's two ways of doing it. You can either use a dedicated flushing oil, or a flushing additive in your existing oil. Either way it's wise to change the filter first so you have a clean one to collect all the gunk. (This typically means draining the oil or working fast). Once you have a new filter in place, and the flushing oil (or flushing solution) in there, run the engine at a fast idle for about 20 minutes. Finally, drain all this off (and marvel at the crap that comes out with it), replace the oil filter again, refill with a good synthetic oil and voila! Clean(er) engine. For the curious amongst you, looking in the oil filter that was attached when you did the flush will be an educational exercise in the sort of debris that used to be in your engine.
Of course, like most things nowadays, there's a condition attached when using flushing oils. In an old engine you really don't want to remove all the deposits. Some of these deposits help seal rings, lifters and even some of the flanges between the heads, covers, pan and the block, where the gaskets are thin. I have heard of engines with over 280,000km that worked fine, but when flushed, failed in a month because the blow-by past the scraper ring (now really clean) contaminated the oil and ruined the rod bearings.

Using Diesel oil for flushing
A question came up some time ago about using diesel-rated oils to flush out petrol engines. The idea was that because of the higher detergent levels in diesel engine oil, it might be a good cleaner / flusher for a non-diesel engine. Well most of the diesel oil specification oils can be used in old petrol engines for cleaning, but you want to use a low specification oil to ensure that you do not over clean your engine and lose compression (for example). Generally speaking, an SAE 15W/40 diesel engine oil for about 500 miles might do the trick.

Which oil should you buy? (the short version)
That all depends on your car, your pocket and how you intend to drive and service the car. All brands claim theirs offers the best protection available - until they launch a superior alternative. It's like washing powders - whiter than white until new Super-Nukem-Dazzo comes out. For most motorists and most cars, a quality mainstream oil is the best, like Castrol GTX. Moving up a step, you could look at Duckhams QXR and Castrol Protection Plus and GTX3 Lightec. The latter two of these are designed specifically for engines with catalytic converters. They're also a good choice for GTi's and turbo engines. Go up a step again and you're looking at synthetic oils aimed squarely at the performance market like Mobil-1.
To help you through the maze of oils available, there's a site available now (the motor oil evaluator) that aims to lessen the confusion with a relatively balanced scoring system based on published specifications such as viscosity and pour point. It's a good starting point if you're looking for even more in-depth info.

Link
http://members.themotoroilevaluator.com/

Which oil should you buy? (the long version)
Quality Counts! It doesn't matter what sort of fancy marketing goes into an engine oil, or how many naked babes smear it all over their bodies, or how bright and colourful the packaging is, it's what's written on the packaging that counts. Specifications and approvals are everything. There are two established testing bodies. The API (American Petroleum Institute), and the European counterpart, the ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d'Automobiles - replaced CCMC in 1996). You've probably never heard of either of them, but their stamp of approval will be seen on the side of every reputable can of engine oil.


The API
The API classifications are different for petrol and diesel engines:
For petrol, listings start with 'S' (meaning Service category, but you can also think of it as Spark-plug ignition), followed by another code to denote standard. 'SN' is the current top grade but 'SH' is still the most popular.
For diesel oils, the first letter is 'C' (meaning Commercial category, but you can also think of it as Compression ignition). 'CJ' is the highest grade at the moment, (technically CJ-4 for heavy-duty) but 'CH' is the most popular and is well adequate for passenger vehicle applications.

Note:
Castrol recently upgraded all their oils and for some reason, Castrol diesels now use the 'S' rating, thus completely negating my little aid-memoir above. So the older CC,CD,CE and CF ratings no longer exist, but have been replaced by an 'SH' grade diesel oil. This link is a service bulletin from Castrol, explaining the situation.


The CCMC/ACEA
The ACEA standards are prefixed with an 'A' for petrol engines, 'B' for passenger car diesel, 'C' for diesel with particulate filter, or 'E' for heavy-duty diesel. (The older CCMC specifications were G,D and PD respectively). The ACEA grades may also be followed by the year of issue which will be either '04 or '07 (current). Coupled with this are numerous approvals by car manufacturers which many oil containers sport with pride.

The full ACEA specs are:
  • A1 Fuel Economy Petrol
  • A2 Standard performance level
  • A3 High performance and / or extended drain
  • A5 Fuel economy petrol with extended drain capability
  • B1 Fuel Economy diesel
  • B2 Standard performance level (now obsolete)
  • B3 High performance and / or extended drain
  • B4 For direct injection passenger car diesel engines
  • B5 Fuel economy diesel with extended drain capability

Not suitable for all engines - should ONLY be used in engines specifying this fuel efficient grade. Refer to the manufacturer handbook of contact your local dealer if you're not sure.


Mineral oils:
  • E1 Non-turbo charged light duty diesel
  • E2 Standard performance level
  • E3 High performance extended drain
  • E5 (1999) High performance / long drain plus American/API performances. - This is ACEAs first attempt at a global spec.
  • E7 Euro 4 engines - exhaust after treatment (EGR / SCR)

Part / full synthetic oils:
  • E4 Higher performance and longer extended drain
  • E6 Euro 4 specification - low SAPS for vehicles with PDF (see below)

Low SAPS diesel (Sulphated Ash, Phosphorous, Sulphur)
For diesel engines fitted with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) - a filter unit in the exhaust that takes out the microscopic soot particles. Regular diesel oils used in engines that have a DPF can cause the filter to become blocked with ash.
  • C1 Low SAPS (0.5% ash) fuel efficient
  • C2 Mid SAPS (0.8% ash) fuel efficient, performance
  • C3 Mid SAPS (0.8% ash)

Many OEM are now using their own specifications to capture these specifications. eg. Mercedes 229.31/51, BMW Longlife 04, VW 507 00 etc.
There is also a trend now towards manufacturers requiring their own specifications - in this case the OEM specification is the one that needs to be adhered to. If it says BMW Longlife 04, the oil must say this on the pack to be suitable for use.

Typically, these markings will be found in a statement similar to: Meets the requirements of API SH/CD along the label somewhere. Also, you ought to be able to see the API Service Symbol somewhere on the packaging:



Beware the fake API symbol

Some unscrupulous manufacturers (and there's not many left that do this) will put a symbol on their packaging designed to look like the API symbol without actually being the API symbol. They do this in an effort to pump up the 'quality' of their product by relying on people not really knowing exactly what the proper API symbol should look like. To the left is an example of a fake symbol - it looks similar but as long as you remember what to look for, you won't get taken by this scam.
Amsoil are one of the biggest inadvertent offenders of the fake API symbol. Take a look at one of their labels here on the right. See that little starburst that says "Fuel efficient formula SL-CF"? It's actually not an API-certified SL or CF oil. (To be fair, some Amsoil products are API certified and they do have the correct labelling, but their top-tier products do not). The issue of their lack of API certification on these products caused such a stir at Amsoil that they had to generate a FAQ to answer the most commonly-asked questions. You can find a copy of that here : Amsoil & API Licensing. It explains everything logcially and clearly, and it's not scientific doublespeak. Which is nice


Grade counts too!The API/ACEA ratings only refer to an oil's quality. For grade, you need to look at the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) ratings. These describe the oil's function and viscosity standard. Viscosity means the substance and clinging properties of the lubricant. When cold, oil can become like treacle so it is important that any lube is kept as thin as possible. Its cold performance is denoted by the letter 'W', meaning 'winter'. At the other end of the scale, a scorching hot oil can be as thin as water and about as useful too. So it needs to be as thick as possible when warm. Thin when cold but thick when warm? That's where MultiGrade oil comes in. For ages, good old 20W/50 was the oil to have. But as engines progressed and tolerances decreased, a lighter, thinner oil was required, especially when cold. Thus 15W/50, 15W/40 and even 15W/30 oils are now commonplace.

The question of phosphorus and zinc.
Phosphorus (a component of ZDDP - Zinc Dialkyl-Dithio-Phosphate) is the key component for valve train protection in an engine and 1600ppm (parts per million) used to be the standard for phosphorus in engine oil. In 1996 the EPA forced that to be dropped to 800ppm and then more recently (2004?) to 400ppm - a quarter of the original spec. Valvetrains and their components are not especially cheap to replace and this drop in phosphorus content has been a problem for many engines (especially those with flat-tappet type cams). So why was the level dropped? Money. Next to lead, it's the second most destructive substance to shove through a catalytic converter. The US government mandated a 150,000 mile liftime on catalytic converters and the quickest way to do that was to drop phosphorous levels and bugger the valvetrain problem. Literally.
In the US, Mobil 1 originally came out with the 0W40 as a 'European Formula' as it was always above 1000 ppm. This initially got them out of the 1996 800ppm jam and knowledgeable consumers sought it out for obvious reasons. Their 15W50 has also maintained a very high level of phosphorus and all of the extended life Mobil synthetics now have at least 1000ppm. How do they get away with this? They're not classified as energy/fuel conserving oils and thus do not interfere with the precious government CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) ratings. (See my section on the EPA and fuel economy in the Fuel and Engine Bible for more info on this). This also means that they don't get the coveted ratings of other oils but they do protect your valvetrain. The same rule of thumb is true for racing oils like Royal Purple - because they're not classified as energy / fuel conserving, it would seem they still contain good quantities of ZDDP.
In fact, as a general rule-of-thumb, staying away from XX-30 oils and going to 10W-40 or higher might be the way to go if you have an older engine. 10W-40 and above is generally also not considered to be 'gas saving' and like the Mobil example above, doesn't mess with the CAFE rating.
If you live in England, Castrol market a product with ZDDP in the product description - 'Castrol Classic Oil With ZDDP Anti-Wear Additive' although it's not mainstream enough to be available everywhere. You'll have to find a specialist dealer. Castrol Classics. In the US, Rislone manufacture an oil supplement to boost the ZDDP content of your existing oil. Rislone Engine Oil Supplement.

API rating backward compatibility and 2V engines
If you own a two-valve spark ignition engine or certain diesel engines (which do not have to meet recent emission standards) the only sensible (ie widely available) oil to put in right now is synthetic or semisynthetic to meet API SL/CF and not a higher rating. As I touched upon above, oils with a CG and higher rating typically don't contain enough ZDDP, and the replacement friction modifiers don't work in highly loaded valve trains (generally older engines especially those with 2V design). If you try to compensate by adding a ZDDP additive into a newer oil it still might not work because of interactions with other additives in the oil.
Why the discrepancy in the ratings? The API no longer include a valve train wear test that accurately simulates 2V cam follower loading. They do perform a test that simulates 4V loading and then they allow a lot of wear to occur and still 'pass'. The ACEA tests are a lot tougher but still not tough enough. Whilst the newer CG, CH and higher API oil standards should be 'better in every way', they are really just 'improved in some ways'. Hence the increasing use of manufacturer-specific standards.
There is a lot of info kicking around on the web on this topic because it has caused a LOT of problems with some engines especially Porsche aircooled units.
One of my readers found out when he went to buy oil for his (modern 4V common rail diesel) Nissan that they expressly prohibit the use of CG or higher rated oils. Nissan mandate that owners use CF oils in these engines. It's worth noting that the CF spec was already out of date when these engines were built but Nissan did not use the latest API spec because it wasn't good enough!
The fact that API have dropped the CF tests/standard does not in any way improve the later oils that do not meet this standard.

Engine oil / Motor oil Shelf Life.
I couldn't decide whether to put this in the FAQ or the main page, so it's in both, because I get asked this question a lot. Typically, the question is along the lines of "GenericAutoSuperStore are having a sale on WickedlySlippy Brand synthetic oil. If I buy it now, how long can I keep if before I use it?"
In general, liquid lubricants (ie. oils, not greases) will remain intact for a number of years. The main factor affecting the life of the oil is the storage condition for the products. Exposure to extreme temperature changes, and moisture will reduce the shelf life of the lubricants. (an increase of 10C doubles oxidation which halves the shelf life) ie. don't leave it in the sun with the lid off. Best to keep them sealed and unopened.

Technically, engine oils have shelf lives of four to five years. However, as years pass, unused engine oils can become obsolete and fail to meet the technical requirements of current engines. The specs get updated regularly based on new scientific testing procedures and engine requirements. But this is only really a concern if you've bought a brand new car but have engine oil you bought for the previous car. An oil that is a number of years old might not be formulated to meet the requirements set for your newer engine.

If your unopened containers of engine oil are more than three years old, read the labels to make sure they meet the latest industry standards. If they do meet the current standards, you might want to take the extra precaution of obtaining oil analysis before using them. An oil analysis will check for key properties of the oil and ensure that it still meets the original manufacturing specs. Of course the cost of getting an analysis done on old oil is probably going to outweigh going and buying fresh stuff. So it's a double-edged sword.
As a general rule, the simpler the oil formulation, the longer the shelf life. The following is a guideline under protected conditions - indoors at about 20C:

PHP Code:
Product                                                                  Shelf Life
Base Oils
Process Oils                                                   3 years
Hydraulic Oils
Compressor OilsGeneral Purpose Lubricating Oils         2 years
Engine Oils 
and Transmission Oils                                         3 years
Industrial 
and Automotive Gear Oils                                       2 years
Metal Working 
and Cutting Oils                                            1 year 
The following are signs of storage instability in a lubricant:

Settling out of the additives as a gel or sticky liquid
Floc or haze
Precipitates/solid material
Colour change or haziness
Water contamination in a lubricant can be detected by a "milky" appearance of the product.



"High mileage" oils.
More and more oil companies are coming out with "high mileage" oils, some recommended for engines with as few as 75,000 miles on them. So what is a "high mileage" oil you ask? Very generally speaking, these oils have two additives in them that are more suited to older engines. The first is normally a burnoff-inhibitor which helps prevent the oil from burning off if it gets past an engine seal into the combustion chamber. The second is a "seal conditioner", the exact makeup of which I'm not sure of, but it's designed to soak into seals such as head- and rocker-cover gaskets and force them to expand. Thus if one of the seals is a bit leaky, the seal conditioner will attempt to minimise the leak.
I've not had experience of high mileage oils myself, but a few people who've e-mailed me have passed on various tales from it being the miracle cure to it making no difference at all. I think the general rule-of-thumb though should be "if it 'aint broke, don't fix it." Just because your engine has over 75,000 miles on it, doesn't automatically mean you need high mileage oil. Is the exhaust sooty or smokey? Are you noticing oil leaks? Is the engine consuming oil? If your engine is working fine, the exhaust is clean and you're not noticing any problems, my guess is that it doesn't need high-mileage oil.



What about own-brands?
If you can't afford the big-name players, you could look at own-brand oils. These are usually badged oils from one of the larger companies but sold without the name, they are cheaper. Check the standards and grade ratings on the pack first! The example on the left is a local store in Chelmsford in England who sell their own label oil which is bottled for them by a volume retailer. The label tells you all you need to know.

Attachment 47616
Viscosity and Viscosity Index (VI).
The proper viscosity is the single most important criteria of a lubricating oil. The basic performance of machinery is based on the viscosity of the lubricant. Viscosity is, if you like, the resistance to the flowability of the oil. The thicker an oil, the higher its viscosity. The chart on the right shows a rough guide to ambient temperatures vs oil viscosity performance in both multigrade (top half) and single grade (lower half) oils.
Multigrade oils work by having a polymer added to a light base oil that prevents the oil from thinning too much as it warms up. At low temperatures, the polymers are coiled up and allow the oil to flow as it's low number (W number) indicates. As the oil heats up, the polymers unwind into long chains which prevent the oil from thinning as much as it normally would. The result is that at 100C, the oil has thinned only as much as its higher rating. Think of it like this: a 10W30 oil is a 10-weight oil that will not thin more than a 30-weight oil when it gets hot.
The viscosity index of a lubricant is an empirical formula that allows the change in viscosity in the presence of heat to be calculated. This tells the user how much the oil will thin when it is subjected to heat. The higher the viscosity index, the less an oil will thin at a specified temperature. Multi-viscosity motor oils will have a viscosity index well over 100, while single viscosity motor oils and most industrial oils will have a VI of about 100 or less.

Viscosity and oil weight numbers is quite a nauseatingly detailed topic.

Servicing and checking
For God's sake don't skimp on either of these. You can never check your engine oil too often. Use the dipstick - that's what it's there for - and don't run below the 'min' mark. Below that, there isn't enough oil for the pump to be able to supply the top of the engine whilst keeping a reserve in the sump. All oils, no matter what their type, are made of long-chained molecules that get sheared into shorter chains in a running engine. This in turn means that the oil begins to lose its viscosity over time, and it uses up the additives that prevent scuffing between cams and followers, rings and cylinder walls etc etc. When this happens, fresh oil is the key. Don't worry about the engine oil turning black. It will lose its golden-brown colour within a few hundred miles of being put in to the engine. That doesn't mean it's not working. Quite the contrary - it means it is working well. It changes colour as it traps oxidised oil, clots and the flakes of metal that pop off heavily loaded engine parts. Just don't leave it too long between oil changes.

So how often should I change my oil?
You can never change your engine oil too frequently. The more you do it, the longer the engine will last. The whole debate about exactly when you change your oil is somewhat of a grey area. Manufacturers tell you every 10,000 miles or so. Your mate with a classic car tells you every 3,000 miles. Ole' Bob with the bad breath who drives a truck tells you he's never once changed the oil in his ve-hickle. Fact is, large quantities of water are produced by the normal combustion process and, depending on engine wear, some of it gets into the crank case. If you have a good crank case breathing system it gets removed from there PDFQ, but even so, in cold weather a lot of condensation will take place. This is bad enough in itself, since water is not noted for its lubrication qualities in an engine, but even worse, that water dissolves any nitrates formed during the combustion process. If my memory of chemistry serves me right, that leaves you with a mixture of Nitric (HNO3) and Nitrous (HNO2) acid circulating round your engine! So not only do you suffer a high rate of wear at start-up and when the engine is cold, you suffer a high rate of subsequent corrosion during normal running or even when stationary.
The point I'm trying to make is that the optimum time for changing oil ought to be related to a number of factors, of which distance travelled is probably one of the least important in most cases. Here is my selection in rough order of importance:
  1. Number of cold starts (more condensation in a cold engine)
  2. Ambient temperature (how long before warm enough to stop serious condensation)
  3. Effectiveness of crank case scavenging (more of that anon)
  4. State of wear of the engine (piston blow-by multiplies the problem)
  5. Accuracy of carburation during warm-up period (extra gook produced)
  6. Distance travelled (well, lets get that one out of the way)

If you were clever (or anal) enough, you could probably come up with a really clever formula incorporating all those factors. However, I would give 1, 2, and 3 equal top weighting. Items 1 to 3 have to be taken together since a given number of "cold" starts in the Dakar in summer is not the same as an equal number conducted in Fargo in January. The effect in either case will be modified by how much gas gets past the pistons. What we are really after is the severity and duration of the initial condensation period. All other things being equal, that will give you how much condensate will be produced and I would suggest that more than anything else determines when the oil should be dumped.

Dammit Chris, get to the point already!
Hang on a moment - if you really want the answer, there's a couple more factors you need to take account of: Crank-case scavenging (that's the clever term for sucking the nasty fumes back out of the crank-case) - or lack of it - is a crucial multiplying factor affecting all the other items listed above. As an example, the worst I've heard of was a Ford Fiesta of the mid 70s or so. Its crank-case fume extraction was via a tiny orifice directly into the inlet manifold which obviously could not handle any significant volume of crank-case fumes without upsetting the carburation. The car in question had been used almost exclusively for 5 mile journeys to/from work, shopping etc, and it had always been serviced "by the book".Despite (or because of) this, the engine was totally buggered at 40,000 miles. Alternatively you might get a car that by virtue of excellent crank case fume scavenging could tolerate many more cold starts than one without.

Taking all these into consideration, my philosophy would be to totally ignore the distance and change the oil twice a year - about November and March. Move these dates a bit according to the severity of the winter. An average family car will do around 14,000 miles per year and about 2/3 of that will fall in the March - November period. At the end of that period, the car will be getting close to the manufacturer-recommended oil change interval - but all that distance will have been done at reasonable temperatures, including long distance runs during vacations and good weather. During the November to March period it may accumulate only 2 or 3 thousand miles, all low temperature starts and mostly short runs.
Around 1995, an article in the ANWB journal (ANWB is the Dutch equivalent of the AA - or the AAA in the American case) reached more or less the same conclusion that distance was not very important. In their case they applied this to their road service fleet, which once started in the morning never got cold. In effect, they hardly ever changed the oil. I seem to remember 30,000 miles between oil changes being quoted. I also seem to remember that they had some kind of water or acid indicator attached to the end of the dipstick and went by that rather than distance.

That's a politician's answer - you've dodged the entire issue!
Have I? I don't know how far you drive in a year, where you live, the style of your driving or anything else so I can't tell you what's right for your car. I changed the oil and filter in my 1985 Audi Coupe every 5,000 miles. It had done over 150,000 miles when I sold it, wasn't leaking and didn't consume any oil. My Subarus got oil changes at 10,000 miles but were newer cars in a warmer environment. My VWs got oil changes at 8000 miles or so. If you must have a figure from me, then 8,000 is it.

Link Of the Oil FAQ
http://www.carbibles.com/engineoil_bible.html#sae
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Old 07-09-2012, 10:10 AM   #2
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Old 07-09-2012, 10:19 AM   #3
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"Cut 'n Paste"
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Old 07-09-2012, 11:11 AM   #4
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Hey Hussein,

I'm sorry, I was just joking around about starting an oil thread because it also has strong controversial viewpoints.

However, this was interesting and coincides with my own experience.

Quote:
Note that you cannot use your water temperature gauge to tell where your oil temperature may be. Water heats up in 2 - 3 minutes whereas oil takes as long a 30 minutes to get to 180 F.
I always change the oil immediately after shutting down a hot engine and let it drip for about a half hour to allow the circulated oil to make it to the bottom of the pan. And if the engine is cold I'll drive the car around to warm it up. Even driving the car around for 20 minutes or so, while the engine is hot, the oil is still just warm.
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Old 07-09-2012, 07:14 PM   #5
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Originally Posted by cali yaris View Post
"Cut 'n Paste"
Noticed the same thing...

What's the point of just copying and pasting articles into the forum?
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Old 07-09-2012, 07:50 PM   #6
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Originally Posted by jpmck03 View Post
What's the point of just copying and pasting articles into the forum?
best guess is to make the information easier to find, but I have noticed that when you post that much, few people read it, even if you type it yourself.
But really, 14 pages worth of information is just
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Old 07-09-2012, 09:29 PM   #7
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epic smiley:
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Old 07-10-2012, 12:40 PM   #8
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Quote:
Originally Posted by cali yaris View Post
epic smiley:


That is a Good info maybe you guy's no it but other newbie Don't So give me a break.

If you are not happy about it let me No so i can delete it.
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Old 07-10-2012, 01:43 PM   #9
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WHY SO SERIOUS ABOUT OIL?
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Old 07-10-2012, 03:44 PM   #10
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^lol

instead of copying and pasting you could have just thrown up a link to the site. that way it would have saved server space for the forum and made it less like someone trying to pretend to know(<the way it should be spelled)
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Old 07-10-2012, 04:48 PM   #11
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It all seems rather harmless to me. Don't know what you guys are going on about.
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Old 07-10-2012, 05:34 PM   #12
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^ I can Google and read like anyone else. I go on forums for the information the members have, not for their ability to copy and paste.

Further, all the information he is copying and pasting is one-sided, presenting only one point of view (the pulley post for example) -- and we can't even tell if it's his point of view.

Finally, presenting generalized information on a one-make site is minimally helpful at best, and completely incorrect at worst.

That's my problem with it, and that's the last I'll say about it. If everyone really likes this approach, I have a LOT of material I could contribute.
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Old 07-10-2012, 06:34 PM   #13
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While I agree that duplicate information is usually best shared in link form, I don't think it's all that terrible to have it pasted here instead, as long as the information is relevant to our cars, since it can be independently discussed.
BTW, If someone thinks the information being posted is incorrect, then by all means write it down so that we can all learn different points of view.
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Old 07-11-2012, 06:27 AM   #14
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Quote:
Originally Posted by tk-421 View Post
While I agree that duplicate information is usually best shared in link form, I don't think it's all that terrible to have it pasted here instead, as long as the information is relevant to our cars, since it can be independently discussed.
BTW, If someone thinks the information being posted is incorrect, then by all means write it down so that we can all learn different points of view.
This is a Wise Minded thinking & i Totally Agree with you 100%.

The reason i posted this is so you guys can share your tests and results with oils, Do you no that the oil play a big Role in your Engine compression ratio.

Every one is locking from an angel & i respect that its ok guys i can take to
Much and handle more for the sake of good info for me & all of you.

Cheers
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Old 07-11-2012, 10:15 AM   #15
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^ That's cool. I'm more interested in your experience as I said. What results have you had with different oils?

I change mine so often that I don't use any exotic or crazy brand, just a good synthetic.
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Old 07-11-2012, 11:26 AM   #16
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OK Thanks All,

First of all here is a PDF oil Inspection User manual Provided by Toyota.
Oil Inspection.pdf


Next thing is test the AC Delco oil 5W-30 and i notice the fallowing symptoms,

The Engine Warm ups Really fast within 40 to 50 seconds tops.
While Cranking the Engine or starting the Engine I hear sound Coming from the
Engine head like ticking and guess what is that sound is!

That is the engine head Mechanisms due to the oil Either its not reaching the Engine head that fast or because its Very thin as hell and by gravity Creation
it will drop really fast soon i switch off the Engine i will go for this guess
because its the oil Wight and Viscosity work and out side Temp plays a huge role in that.

Conclusion come from an Experience this oil is not OK for my Engine Due to Where i live & Country aria Temp.

For record as for today Temperature: 36 Clear Humidity: 41% Visibility: 9.99 km Wind: North - W at 22.53 km / h

I am not saying that this oil is not good or its not suitable for your Engine
it Depend on your Country Temp.

And that for it can Hold your Engine compression ratio if you chose wisely.
Why do you think if they do a Engine compression test and put small amount
of oil on the top of the piston the Engine compression raise up.

Think of that!

This is why that thing is happen to me=
How do I read the numbers around the 'W'? For example 5W40?

Its on top read it.



Read this whole post & believe me you will end up Experience.

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Old 07-11-2012, 11:45 AM   #17
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Quote:
And that for it can Hold your Engine compression ratio if you chose wisely.
Why do you think if they do a Engine compression test and put small amount
of oil on the top of the piston the Engine compression raise up.

Think of that!
You check compression as is. If you have low compression in a cylinder, then you put a small amount of oil in the cylinder to try and seal off your piston rings. If you still have low compression you are just ruling out that your piston rings are good.. Then you look for other problems like bent valves or head gasket.

My opinion on all this after doing many 3.0L desludges from ES300 and RX300, Just read your owners manual and go by thier scheduled services and the oil they recommend. I personally will use any full synthetic that is on sale that month with filter. 99% of the time sludge happens when people use conventional oil and skip out on thier expected oil changes.
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Old 07-11-2012, 12:00 PM   #18
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ilikerice View Post
You check compression as is. If you have low compression in a cylinder, then you put a small amount of oil in the cylinder to try and seal off your piston rings. If you still have low compression you are just ruling out that your piston rings are good.. Then you look for other problems like bent valves or head gasket.

My opinion on all this after doing many 3.0L desludges from ES300 and RX300, Just read your owners manual and go by thier scheduled services and the oil they recommend. I personally will use any full synthetic that is on sale that month with filter. 99% of the time sludge happens when people use conventional oil and skip out on thier expected oil changes.
First thank you for post.

Second i have that issue like before 4 years & now I don't, i just share it to tel you guys some thing i Notice.

Regarding the Engine compression I no that, my point is if the oil is hot above
Its rating Numbers it get thin and for that it wont hold your piston Compression that's why when thy apply Oil's on piston to check the compression in a cylinder it will raise up due to the Cold oil or we can Say new oil applied on the pistons.
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